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Prepositions — предлоги

Prepositions - предлоги

Prepositions — предлоги


Verbs with prepositions – глаголы с предлогами
1. Многие глаголы, которые используются без объекта, как правило, сопровождаются предлогом. Некоторые глаголы имеют конкретный предлог:
belong to – принадлежать кому-либо, чему-либо
consist of – состоять из
happen to – случаться с
hint at — намекать на
hope for – надеяться на что-то
insist on – настаивать на
lead to – вести к
listen to – слушать что-либо
pay for – платить за
refer to — ссылаться на
relate to – относиться к
sympathize with — сочувствовать

2. С другими глаголами, которые используются без объекта, выбор предлога зависит от смысла предложения.
agree on/with – согласиться на / с
apologize for/ to – приносить извинения за что-то / кому-то
appeal to/for — обратиться к кому-то / за чем-то
care about/of – заботиться о чем-либо / о ком-либо
result from/in – быть результатом чего-то / в чем-то
suffer from/with – страдать от / с

3. С помощью глаголов, которые используются без предмета, различные предлоги используются для введения различных типов информации.
‘about’ указывает на предмет
Care, complain, do, dream, explain, hear, know , speak, talk, think, write

‘at’ указывает направление
Glance, glare, grin, look, smile, point, stare, shout

‘for’ указывает на цель или причину
Apologize, apply, ask, leave, look, search, wait

‘into’ указывает на объект, участвующий в столкновении
Bump, crash, drive, run

‘of’ указывает на факты в информации
Hear, know, speak, talk, think

‘on’ указывает на уверенность или достоверность
Congratulate, count, depend, plan, rely

‘to’ указывает на слушателя или читателя
Complain, explain, listen, say, speak, talk, write

‘with’ указывает на кого-то, чье мнение одинаковое или разное
Agree, argue, disagree, side

4. Некоторые глаголы имеют объект, но после них также следуют предлоги.

Exercises
Put in the correct prepositions (to, about, at, from, for, in, into, of, on, with):
1. I want to talk … the students … their test.
2. During last winter he suffered … coughs and colds.
3. When will you write … John … your plans?
4. If you don’t understand any of these words, you could refer … a dictionary.
5. The accident results … the death of a man.
6. The police are appealing … witnesses to come forward.
7. It wasn’t his book, it fact I don’t know who it belongs …
8. Teachers are very badly paid, I think they should insist … higher rates of pay.
9. The poor Dave — I really sympathize … him, it wasn’t his fault.
10. The buses are often late, so you can’t depend … them.
11. Do you qualify … a state pension when you are 55?
12. Keep enough money to pay … your ticket.
13. Have you heard … what had happened … him? Oh, I don’t care … him.
14. I said … you I was thinking going to Australia. I actually dreamt … it.
15. She listened … me and then told me … her problems.
16. The car ran … the wall of a house.
17. People started to shout … the driver.
18. Who was the girl you were all laughing …?
19. I saw somebody staring … me from the other side of the road.
20. He was always arguing … his sister.
21. I bumped … an old friend the other day.
22. I agree … you that we should wait a bit longer … her.
23. She never apologizes … arriving late.
24. I thought we should look … someone else to do the job.
25. If you want to travel, that would be a good job to apply …
26. The land belongs … a rich man.
27. She then referred … his report.
28. I congratulate her … her success in the competition.
29. The boss disagreed … me.
30. The match resulted … a draw.
31. His failure resulted … lack of attention to details.
32. Tonight I’m going to talk … serious problems.
33. You can count … me.
34. You can rely … him to be polite.
35. They complained … me about the noise.
36. Ann turned her head to speak … him.
37. The daughters sided … their mothers.
38. Can I speak … Jack, please?
39. Can you explain this word … me?
40. Can you explain … me what you mean?
41. He told me his phone number but I can’t think … it now.
42. This house reminds me … the one I lived in when I was a child.
43. We called the doctor because Jane was complaining … a pain in her stomach.
44. That’s a good idea. Why didn’t I think … that?
45. Look at this photo of Nick. Who does he remind you …?
46. She left London … New York when she was 19.
47. If something is wrong, why don’t you do anything … it?
48. Paul likes his job but he doesn’t talk … it much.
49. I like to listen … the radio while I’m enjoying a cup of tea.
50. Please don’t shout … me!

Keys
1. to, about 2. from3. to, about 4. to 5. in 6. to, for 7. to 8. on 9. with 10. on 11. for 12. for 13. about, to, about 14. to, about, about 15. to, about 16. into 17. at 18. at 19. at 20. with21. into 22. with, for 23. for 24. for 25. for26.to27. to 28, on 29. with 30. in 31. from 32. about 33. on 34. on 35. to 36. to 37. with 38. to 39. to 40. to. 41. of 42. of 43. of 44. of 45. of. 46. for 47. about 48. about 49. to 50. at.

Adjectives with prepositions – прилагательные с предлогами
1. При использовании прилагательного после глагола, вы можете часто использовать прилагательное самостоятельно или с предлогом.

2. Некоторые прилагательные не могут быть использованы по отдельности после глагола, если за ними следует предложная фраза, предлог в этом случае обязателен.
aware of – осведомлены о
accustomed to – привычный к
fond of – любить что-то
unaware of – не знать о
unaccustomed to – непривыкший к
used to – привык к
different from /or to/ — отличаться от
sorry about/ for –сожаление о чем-либо/за что-либо

3. Некоторые прилагательные могут использоваться по отдельности или с определенным предлогом.
Используется отдельно или с ‘of’, чтобы указать причину чувства:
Afraid, ashamed, convinced, critical, envious , frightened, jealous, proud, scared, suspicious, terrified, tired

Используется отдельно или с ‘of’, указать лицо, которое имеет качество:
Brave, careless, clever, generous, good, intelligent, kind, nice, polite, sensible, silly, stupid, thoughtful, unkind, wrong, unreasonable

Используется отдельно или с ‘to’, обычно имеется в виду сходство:
Close, equal, identical, related, similar
marriage: married, engaged
loyalty: dedicated, devoted, loyal and their opposites
rank: junior, senior

Используется отдельно или с ‘with’, чтобы определить причину чувства:
Bored, dissatisfied, pleased, content, impatient, satisfied, displeased, impressed

Используется отдельно или с ‘at’, обычно подразумевают:
Strong reaction: amazed, astonished, shocked, surprised
Ability: bad, excellent, good, hopeless, useless

Используется отдельно или с ‘for’ чтобы указать на лицо или вещь, к которому имеет отношение качество:
Common, difficult, easy, essential, important, necessary, possible, unnecessary, unusual, usual

4. Некоторые прилагательные могут быть использованы с разными предлогами.
Используется отдельно или с безличным субъекта и ‘of’ и предмет действия, или с личным субъектом и ‘to’ и объектом действия:
Cruel, friendly, generous, good, kind, mean, nasty, nice, polite, rude, unfriendly, unkind

Используется отдельно, с ‘about’, чтобы указать вещь, или с ‘with’, чтобы указать лицо:
Angry, annoyed, delighted, disappointed, fed up, furious, happy, upset

Exercises
Put in the correct prepositions: of, to, with, at, about, for, from.
1. He was afraid … his parents.
2. I’ve always been terribly fond … you.
3. He is unaccustomed … the heat.
4. She may feel jealous … your success.
5. I was terrified … him.
6. That was kind … you.
7. I left my keys at home, that was stupid … me.
8. My answers are very similar … yours.
9. He was dedicated … his project.
10. I could never be bored … baseball.
11. He was very pleased … her.
12. He was shocked … the hatred they had shown.
13. She had always been bad … Chemistry.
14. It’s difficult … young people to live on their own.
15. It was so usual … them to go away at the weekend.
16. It was rude … him to leave so suddenly.
17. She was rude … him for no reason.
18. She was happy … the results.
19. He’s getting pretty fed up … her.
20. If you continue to support someone who is in trouble you are loyal … them.
21. If two things are almost the same one is similar … the other.
22. Someone who is a fine athlete is good … games.
23. I was proud … my sister.
24. I’m very amazed … you.
25. Life is very different … what it used to be.
26. Who is responsible … this work?
27. I’m delighted … the result. It’s exactly what I wanted.
28. In the army, a sergeant is senior … a corporal.
29. If two things are exactly the same one is identical … the other.
30. If something makes you upset, you are very unhappy … it.
31. If someone makes you furious, you are very angry … him.
32. If you feel that you do not trust someone, you are suspicious … them.
33. If you treat someone well, you are being kind … them.
34. If you have agreed to marry someone, you are engaged … him/her.
35. Everyone was very critical … the way she behaved.
36. We were very pleased … the way they treated us.
37. I was very disappointed … the way they looked.
38. I feel sorry … Jack. He has a lot of problems.
39. I’m sorry … the loud music last night. We were having a party.
40. That was not very polite … you.
41. Why are you so unkind … your brother?
42. Were you delighted … your test results?

Keys
1. of 2. of 3. to 4. of 5. of 6. of 7. of 8. to 9. to 10. with 11.with 12. at 13. at 14. for 15. for 16. of 17. to 18. about 19. with 20. to 21. to 22. at 23. of 24. at 25. from 26. for 27. with 28. to 29. to 30. about 31. with 32. of 33. to 34. to 35. of 36. about 37. with 38. for 39. about 40. of41. to 42. with.