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Jack London – English novelist

Jack London

Jack London


The novelist and short-story writer Jack London (1876-1916) was, in his lifetime, one of the most popular authors in the world. After World War I his fame was eclipsed in the United States by a new generation of writers, but he remained popular in many other countries, especially in the Soviet Union, for his romantic tales of adventure mixed with elemental struggles for survival.
John Griffith London was born in San Francisco on Jan. 12, 1876. His family was poor, and he was forced to go to work early in life to support himself. At 17 he sailed to Japan and Siberia on a seal-hunting voyage. He was largely self-taught, reading voluminously in libraries and spending a year at the University of California. In the late 1890s he joined the gold rush to the Klondike. This experience gave him material for his first book, ‘The Son of Wolf’, published in 1900, and for ‘Call of the Wild’ (1903), one of his most popular stories.
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Russian institutions of higher education

There are a lot of institutions of higher education in our country. The Linguistic University, previously known as Maurice Thorez Institute of Foreign Languages, Pedagogic University, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia are well known not only in Russia but also abroad. There are numerous regional educational centres in our country. Almost every city of Russia has its university and colleges.
Moscow State University is the largest educational institution in Russia. Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) inspired the foundation of Moscow University. On the Day of St. Tatiana, Count I.I. Shuvalov officially asked the permission of Empress Elizabeth to establish the University. The University was set up by the edict of the Empress issued on January 12, 1755 (according to the Russian old style). Since that time St. Tatiana has become the patron saint of Moscow University, and January 25 is celebrated as University Day in Russia.
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AT THE DOCTOR’S

at the doctorAT THE DOCTOR’S.
Is there anything more important than health? I don’t think so. “Health is the greatest wealth,” wise people say. You can’t be good at your studies or work well when you are ill.
If you have a headache, heartache, toothache, backache, earache or bad pain in the stomach, if you complain of a sore throat or a bad cough, if you run a high temperature and have a bad cold in your head, or if you suffer from a high or low blood pressure, I think you should consult a doctor.
The doctor will examine your throat, feel your pulse, test your blood pressure, take your temperature, sound your heart and lungs, test your eyes, check your teeth or have your chest X-rayed. After that he will prescribe some treatment, pills, tablets or some other medicine which you can buy at the chemist’s. He will recommend you to stay in bed for some time, because there might be serious complications. The only thing you have to do is to follow his recommendations.
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Traditions and Customs in Great Britain

english tradition

Every nation and every country has its own traditions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of the people than in other countries.
The English are very proud of their traditions and carefully keep them. When you come to England you’re struck at once by quite a number of customs. Some ceremonies are rather formal, such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the Colour, the State opening of Parliament, the Ceremony of the Keys. Sometimes you will see a group of cavalrymen riding on black horses through the streets of London. They wear red uniforms, shining helmets, long black boots and long white gloves. These men are Life Guards. Their special duty is to guard the King or the Queen of Great Britain, and very important guests of the country.
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Sport in Britain

Sports in Great Britain

Sports in Great Britain

Sport plays a very important part in people’s lives in Britain. About 29 million people over the age of 16 regularly take part in sport or exercise. Walking is the most popular recreation. For many people sport is the main form of entertainment. There are a lot of sport programmes on TV. Every newspaper devotes several pages to sport.
The British are one of the best in the world in different sports. The importance of sport is recognized by the Government. Every local authority has a duty to provide and maintain playing fields and other facilities, which are very cheap to use (sometimes they are free).
Such sporting occasions as the Cup Final, the Derby, the Boat Race are regarded as the event, rather than the sport itself. They are watched on television by millions of people. These annual sporting occasions are available to all TV channels. Sometimes such events are accompanied by strong traditions. For example, Wimbledon is not just a tennis tournament. It means summer fashions, strawberries and cream, garden parties. Wimbledon is a middle-class event, and British tennis fans would never allow themselves to be treated like football fans.
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Pubs in Britain

english pub

Most countries have a national drink. In England it is beer, and the «pub» is a peculiarly English institution.
The pub is the place where people can meet and talk in a friendly atmosphere. It is quite different from bars or cafes in other countries. In cafes people drink coffee and get out. The atmosphere is rather formal. But in pubs there is a general atmosphere of warmth and cosiness.
Every pub has a sign outside with its name. («The Pig and Whistle», «The Bull», «The Duke of Cambridge», etc.). All pubs have one distinctive feature: there is no waiter service there. If you want something you have to go and ask for it at the bar. People usually sit at tables and chat in a small room, called the «bar», but the same term is used for the great counter of wood, where people stand and have their drinks.
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An Englishman’s Home is His Castle

english house

Everyone in Britain dreams of living in a detached house, which means a separate building. It is usually built of brick and slate. A detached house is of «non-classical» shape with a lot of little corners, which make the house very cosy. In front of the house there’s always a beautiful garden with smooth lawn. The garage is hidden away so it doesn’t spoil the rural feeling.
Every Englishman wants privacy. And a large, detached house not only ensures privacy, but it’s also a status symbol. Such a house is a dream for most people. But even a small house with a garden is very dear to the hearts of many people in Britain.
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Holidays in Britain

London

London

There are fewer public holidays in Britain than in any other country in Europe. Even New Year’s Day wasn’t a public holiday in England and Wales until quite recently. Most official holidays occur just before or just after a weekend. There are practically no extra local holidays in particular places.
The word holiday means holy day. But not all public holidays are connected with religious celebrations. The average employee gets four weeks’ paid holiday a year. About 40% of the population do not go away for their holidays.
In the 18th century the British upper class started the fashion for seaside holidays. In the 20th century the working class got such an opportunity too. And soon it became popular to spend a week or two at the seaside resort towns. These towns have many hotels.
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The Weekend in Great Britain

English Language

English Language

Most people in Britain work five days a week from Monday to Friday. Schools, colleges and universities are closed on Saturday and Sunday.
Weekend starts on Friday evening when people leave work and wish each other a nice weekend.
Those who work away from home may go home. Some people go away for the weekend. They stay in a hotel or boarding house in the country or at the sea.
People who stay at home at the weekend try to relax, enjoy themselves. On Friday night people like to go to a bar for the happy hour, or the theatre. Nowadays it is not «in» to go to all-night parties, they get up early on Saturday morning. Saturday morning is the time for cleaning the house, washing the car, doing the laundry. Women usually do housework, sewing and gardening.
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Holidays and Festivals in Great Britain

Festivals in Great Britain

Festivals in Great Britain

There are eight holidays a year in Great Britain. On these days people don’t go to work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Year’s Day, Good Friday, Easter, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday, Late Summer Bank Holiday.
Most of these holidays are of religious origin. But nowadays they have lost their religious significance and are simply days on which people relax, visit their friends. All the public holidays (except New Year’s Day, Christmas and Boxing Day) are movable. They don’t fall on the same date each year.
Besides public holidays, there are other festivals, anniversaries, on which certain traditions are observed. But if they don’t fall on Sunday, they’re ordinary working days.
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