System of Government in GB
Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch — Queen Elizabeth II — as a head of State.
Today the Queen is not only head of State but also an important symbol of national unity. The royal title in Britain is: «Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.» In law the Queen is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the Supreme Governor of the established Church of England.
The Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many traditional ceremonies. They visit different parts of Britain; they are involved in the work of many charities.
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System of Government in GB
Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Great Britain is separated from the Continent by the English Channel. «Great Britain» is a geographical expression but «The United Kingdom» is a political expression. The full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain comprises England, Wales and Scotland.
Great Britain is in fact the biggest of the group of islands which lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The total area is 242,534 sq. km. Britain is just under 1,000 km long from the south coast of England to the extreme north of Scotland, and just under 500 km across in the widest part.
Two thousand years ago the Celts, who had been arriving from Europe, mixed with the peoples who were already in Britain Isles. The Roman province of Britannia covered most of the territory of present- day England and Wales. The Romans imposed their own way of living, culture, and language. But inspite of their long occupation of Britain, there isn’t much they left behind. Even most of temples, roads and cities were later destroyed. But such place- names like Chester, Lancaster, Gloucester remind us of the Romans.
The Romans influenced mainly the towns. In the country (where most people lived) Celtic speech dominated. The farming methods remained there unchanged. We can’t speak about Roman’s occupation as a large- scale settlement.
Later (during the 5th century) two tribes (the Angles and the Saxons) settled in Britain. They settled on a very vast territory. Only in the west of the country King Arthur and his army halted the tribes. But in the 6th century the way of life of these tribes predominated in England. The Celtic Britons’ culture and language survived in Southwest Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.
My Favourite Film
Usually we see films either in the cinema or on the TV. But from time to time I go to the cinema. My favourite film is «War and Peace». The script of the film was written by Sergey Bondarchuk and W. Solovyov. The Leningrad (now Sankt Petersburg) ballet dancer Lyudmila Savelieva played the main part. She played her role wonderfully. The other parts were played by A. Krotov (old Bolkonky), O. Tabakov (Nikolai), I. Skobzeva (Helena).
Borodino struggle, hunting, the first ball of Natasha made a great impression on me.
My favourite film Is «The Fate of a Man». This film is excellent. It is difficult to find other words to describe it. It has enormous vigor and delicacy, it is full of purity and hope.
My favourite book is «Robinson Crusoe» by Daniel Defoe. D. Defoe (1660—1731) was a great master of realistic detail. The novel «Robinson Crusoe» was written in 1719. The novel is praise to human labour and the triumph of man over nature. Defoe shows the development of his hero. At the beginning of the story we see an unexperienced youth, a rather frivolous boy, who then becomes a strong-willed man.
Robinson Crusoe’s most characteristic trait is his optimism. His guiding principle in life become «never say die» and «in trouble to be troubled is to have your troubles doubled» He had confidence in himself and in man. He believed it was within the power of man to overcome all difficulties. Crusoe was an enthusiastic worker and always hoped for the best.
The world’s greatest international sports games are known as the Olympic Games.
The Olympic idea means friendship, fraternity and cooperation among the people of the world. The Olympic Movement proves that real peace can be achieved through sport. The Olympic emblem is five interlinked rings: blue, yellow, black, green and red. Any national flag contains at least one of these colours.
The original Olympic Games began in ancient Greece in 776 B.C. These games were part of a festival held every fourth year in honor of God Zeus at the place called Olympia. It was a great athletic festival, including competitions in wrestling, foot racing and chariot racing, rowing and others. The games were for men only. Greek women were forbidden not only to participate but also to watch the Olympics.
Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been developing with the developing and growth of the mankind. All over the world people of different ages are very fond of sports and games. Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. It makes for a healthy mind in a healthy body. Sports help people to keep in good health.
We all need to exercise. Even if you don’t plan to make a career in sport you still have to practice. Regular exercises give you more energy. That is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise than more rest. Exercise makes you feel and look better. The best exercise is one which involves in repeated movements, those are: walking, jogging or swimming. Bending and stretching will add flexibility and feeling of lightness.
Music in Our Life
I love music, I think people cannot live without it. The first thing I do in the morning I switch on my tape — recorder. We can hear music everywhere: in the streets, in the shops, on TV, over the radio, in the cars, in the parks, everywhere. I think it’s really doesn’t matter what kind of music you prefer: rock, pop, classical, jazz. A lot of people are fond of music. They buy tapes, go to the concerts, I visit Concert Halls and Opera Theatres.
I enjoy listening music because it reflects my moods and emotions. Very often when I’m blue, I play my favourite merry songs and feel much better.
Theatre is a place where you can see a play staged. It is also one of entertainments.
A theatre consists of two parts: the stage and the hall. They are separated by a curtain and the orchestra. Actors and actresses perform on the stage and public occupies the hall, the pit, the dress-circles, the boxes and the gallery.
If we made up our mind to go to the theatre we should go to the box-office to buy tickets. Seats can be reserved beforehand.
The last performance I saw was the «Nut Cracker» by Tchaikovsky. How great it was! The main parts were performed by Vadim Pisarev and Inna Dorofeeva. Everyone knows that they are very talented dancers. But I also was impressed by a very young ballet dancer who was performing the part of Masha girl. I think she deserves respect of the audience because she did her best and looked great for her young age. I had a great time that night.
One of the world-wide known museums is the Hermitage. The word «Hermitage» means «a place of solitude». This name was given in the XVIII century by Catherine II to her private museum housed in a small building adjacent to the Winter Palace and accessible only to the chosen few.
In the course of time, the Hermitage grew into one of the greatest museums of the world. At the present, the collections take up five interconnected buildings. The museum retains its old name.
The accumulation of artifacts let to the formation of new departments devoted to the culture and art of the Peoples of the East, of the Prehistoric culture, and of the Russian culture. Three other departments are those of Western European art, classical antiquities and numismatics.