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Category Archive: топики

Radio

Radio

Radio


Radio is one of the most important means of communication. The most widespread and familiar use of radio is broadcasting. Radio broadcasts feature music, news, interviews, discussions, descriptions of sports events, advertising. People wake up to clock radios and listen to radio driving a car. They also spend much of their free time hearing their favourite programs on radio.
Radio broadcasting once had the same entertainment role as television has today. From the 1920’s to the early 1950s, in the Golden Age of Broadcasting, people gathered around their radios every night. They listened to dramas, light comedies, music, and other programs. This period ended with the rise of television.
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Television

Television

Television


Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.
The name «Television» comes from Greek word meaning «far», and a Latin word meaning «to see», so the word «television» means «to see far».
About three-fourths of the 1 500 TV stations in the US are commercial stations. They sell advertising time to pay for their operating costs and to make profit. The rest are public stations, which are nonprofit organizations.
Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs because they must attract larger numbers of viewers in order to sell advertising time at high prices.
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Newspapers, magazines

Newspapers, magazines
Newspapers
Newspaper is a publication that presents and comments on the news. Newspapers play an important role in shaping public opinion and informing people of current events.
The first newspapers were probably handwritten news- sheets posted in public places. The earliest daily newssheet was «Acta Diurna» («Daily Events») which started in Rome in 59 B.C. The first printed newspaper was Chinese publication called «Dibao» («Ti — pao») started in A.D.700s. It was printed from carved wooden blocks. The first regularly published newspaper in Europe was «Avisa Relation» or «Zeitung», started in Germany in 1609.
Newspapers have certain advantages over other mass media — magazines, TV and radio. Newspaper can cover more news and in much detail than TV or radio newcast can do. Magazines focus on major national and international events of the preceeding week. But newspaper focuses on local news as well and provides information and comments faster than magazine can do.
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Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens


Charles Dickens is one of the greatest novelists in the English literature. In his books he showed a real world and people of Victorian England.
Charles Dickens was born in London in 1812. His father was a clerk and had eight children. His father always spent «lore money than he received. When Charles was 11 years old his family was put into prison for his father’s debts. Charles had to give up the school and work. He worked at the blacking factory ten hours a day. Charles hated it and never forgot the experience. He used it in many novels, especially in «David Copperfield» and «Oliver Twist».
At the age of 15 he was lucky to get a job in a London lawyer’s office though he didn’t like this job. When he was 16 he started to work for a newspaper. And by the age of 25 he became one of the best journalists in London.
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Robert Burns

Robert Burns

Robert Burns


Robert Burns, a famous and popular Scottish poet, was born in 1759.
Burns was born in a family of a poor farmer. Robert was the eldest of seven children, so he had to help his father on the farm. His father William Burns was a kind person who loved and understood people. So Robert learned to love and respect people from his father. His mother had a beautiful voice and often sang songs and told many folk-tales to her children. Robert remembered mother’s songs and stories all his life.
His father wanted Robert to be an educated person and sent him to school at the age of 6. Robert liked reading books. His favourite writer was Shakespeare.
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Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton


Isaac Newton
Newton, one of the greatest scientists of all times was born in 1642 in the little village in Lincolnshire, England. His father was a farmer and died before Newton was born. His mother was a clever woman whom he always loved.
After the school, Newton studied mathematics at Cambridge university and received his degree in 1665. Then the university was closed because of the danger of plague and Newton went home for eighteen months. It was most important period in his life when he made his three great discoveries — the discoveries of the differential calculuses, of the nature of white light, and of the law of gravitation.
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Jules Verne

Jules Verne

Jules Verne


Jules Verne was born in 1828 in France. Young Jules was interested in machinery, sailing and writing. Together with his brother Paul, he explored the river near their home in an old sailboat.
Jules’ father was a lawyer and he wanted his son to continue his career. So Jules was sent to Paris to study law. Jules, however, decided soon that his main interest was writing. He joined the club of scientific writers. This group was interested in balloons so Jules soon wrote an adventure story called «Five Weeks in a Balloon». His favourite subject at school was geography, so he wanted to describe in his books as many parts of the world as possible.
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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare


William Shakespeare was one of the greatest and famous writers of the world. Many people know and like his works but many facts of Shakespeare’s life are still unknown.
William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-on- Avon, a small English town. He studied at local grammar school because his father wanted his son to be an educated person. While studying at school, William didn’t have much free time but he liked to go to the forest and river Avon.
Young William liked to watch actors and actresses who visited Stratford-on-Avon. He was fond of actor’s profession and decided to become an actor. With this purpose he went to London. There he played and wrote plays as well. In his works he described the events of England’s contemporary life. His plays that were staged in many theatres and which were then translated into many languages made Shakespeare a very popular person.
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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Lomonosov


Mikhail Lomonosov was born in 1711 in Archangelsk province. His father was a fisher and young Mikhail liked to help him. He always strove for knowledge and liked reading books. As he was 19 years old, he decided to study in Moscow. He went there on foot. In Moscow he entered the Slavic- Greek- Latin Academy. After his graduation from Academy he was sent abroad to complete his knowledge in chemistry and mining. After he had returned from abroad, he became the first Russian professor of chemistry in 1745.
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Wolfgang Mozart

Wolfgang Mozart

Wolfgang Mozart


Wolfgang Mozart is a famous Austrian composer.
Mozart was born in 1756 in Salchburg, Austria. His father, a violinist and a composer, noticed wonderful talent of his son and taught him how to play musical instruments and to compose.
Being 4 years old Mozart played the clavier. When he was 5 or 6 years old he started composing music. At the age of 8—9 Mozart created his first symphonies, and at the age of 10—11 his first creations for musical theatre.
When he was 6 years old his father decided to take him and her sister to the big cities of Europe. Two children gave concerts in Germany, Austria, France, England, Switzerland. The audience was delighted to see such a small boy playing the clavier.
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